an article from 2013 year 「Junshin journal of studies in humanities」no.19 「Four Articles on the Senkaku Tiohisu Islands」, minor adjustments version.
(純心人文研究第19號尖閣釣魚列島雜説四首より) 
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/40019636858

Guides and Foreigners------ Between East and West Borders -------- Respond Prof. Shaw's Article on New York Times

                   Ishiwi, Nozomu

 I research pre-modern culture, have no interest to the international law in the modern world. I respond to Prof. Shaw's opinions only about Han(漢) literary historical materials bofore Japan- Ch'ing (Qing) war on Kap-ngo(甲午) year (1894).
 The oldest historical material of the Chogyo(the old name Chogyo or Diaoyu, and modern name Senkaku) Islands is "The Envoy Document of Ryukyu Voyage", written by Din K'an(or Chen kan, 陳侃) in the Nation Ming, which recorded the name of Chogyo(or Diaoyu) Island for the first time. The ministries of foreign affairs of The People's Republic of China and The Republic of China advocates that the Nation Ming discovered the Chogyo islands for the first time. But we should not forget Din K'an's three gladnesses before sailing.
 The first gladness was brought by the tribute ship from Ryukyu, to which he can inquire foreign informations. The second gladness was brought by the welcoming ship from Ryukyu, which can lead him to Ryukyu. The third gladness was brought by one quartermaster and thirty sailors, sent from Ryukyu, who can help his voyage to Ryukyu.
 Before gladnesses, Din K'an was afraid of the voyage, but after he had got Ryukyuan helpers, he finally dare to cross over the sea. This is why he felt glad three times.
 Who is the discoverer of Chogyo Islands at first time? We must suppose that the Ryukyu people had already discovered them, and named them with Han style, Din K'an was just a recorder. If Ryukyuan quartermaster did not know the Chogyo Islands, how can he navigate this sea route? There has been the conclusion in Japan long time, see Okuhara Toshio "Japan's claim of Senkaku Islands is indisputable", "Japan and Japanese " no. 1515, 1973. (奧原敏雄「動かぬ尖閣列島の日本領有權」,載「日本及日本人」)
 Since Din K'an's voyage, successive envoy's documents show that the Ryukyuans were the most familiar people to Chogyo Islands. The Nation Ryukyu was small and weak, Ming and Ch'ing people recorded their culture and history. It is similar to Spanishes who recorded Maya and Inca culture. We sometimes need to distinguish carefully, and then can determine some facts belong to the local culture. We should not simply regard Spanish historical data as the Spaniard's feats.
 Prof. Shaw Hanyi cited two previous historical data before Kap-ngo(1894), one is Wang Tsip(汪楫)'s "The Miscellaneous Envoy Documents of Ryukyu voyage"(使琉球雜録), written in K'anghi(康煕) 23 (1684), the other is "The Revised Topography of Hokkien(or Fokien, Fujian) Province"(重纂福建通志), written in Daokuang (道光, 1821-1850) period , published in Dongdi(同治, 1862-1874) period.
 Wang Tsip's document says :

  We crossed over "Kao"(郊,suburb, or溝,creek) at dusk, storms occured very hard. ...... I asked: " What the suburb means. " He Said: "It is a border between Tiung and Ngwai (中外, inside and outside)." (I asked:) " Where can you distinguish the border." He said, "I only suppose it. However, we were exactly on that place a short while ago, it is not only supposition."

Reading these sentences carefully, we can know "border between inside and outside (Tiung Ngwai) " was a supposition by a person on the ship, Wang Tsip did not previously know there were a border between inside and outside. Who had ability to tell Wang Tsip this information? We have to hypothesize he was a Ryukyuan.
 Wang Tsip's trip, like successive envoys, was navigated by a Ryukyuan. In addition, this time was very special, when the ship was sailing on the north side of the Strait of Taiwan, the Ryukyuan thinked they have to sail toward the north-east direction, but Fokienese(or Hokkienese, Fujianese) thinked they have to sail toward the south-east. Wang Tsip obeyed the Fokien claim, resulted more and more close to the southern part of the Strait of Taiwan.
 It was June K'anghi 22 year (1683), the battle of Bangho(澎湖, Penghu, Pescadores) was heating up, the ship can not be too close to the south direction. Wang Tsip got a prophecy in his dream, woke up in the early morning, let Fokienese turn the helm quickly, and sail toward the north-east course, which was advocated by Ryukyuan. Finally he had kept his life out of danger.
 Nowaday we can read the original text of Wang Tsip's Envoy Document clearly. We can know that the forward route to Chogyo Islands were in the hands of the Ryukyuans, and the border between inside and outside (Tiung Ngwai) was an information told by the Ryukyuans.
 Wang Tsip also criticized that the nine of ten envoys in successive trips obeyed Ryukyuan navigation, frequently missed the direction. It explains reversely that the envoys were dependent deeply on the Ryukyuans.
 Prof. Shaw Hanyi considers "border between Tiung Ngwai" as the "border that separates Chinese and foreign lands". But it is not correct. "Tiung Ngwai" means inside and outside as original words, there is no "Kuok"(國, nation or land) charactor in the original text.
 Wang Tsip in his "The Seascape Anthology"(Kuan Hai Zip, 觀海集) also says:

When I passed Tongsha Shan (過東沙山), there was the end of Fokien ground. (是閩山盡處).

Tongsha Shan is one island of the Matsu(馬祖) Islands. It was the time of the sea battle on Bangho Islands, Taiwan had not falled in territory of the Nation Ch'ing, also had not be founded as a province. After Fokien territory on the sailing route was over, there were only tributary states and terra nullius. Wang Tsip considered the eastern border of the Nation Ch'ing on the sailing route was Tongsha Shan in the Taiwan Strait. Chogyo Islands and "the border between inside and outside " both is out of territory of the Nation Ch'ing.
 Ryukyuan telled him there were the border between inside and outside. Which is the inside, and which is the outside? We have to hypothesize that the inside is Ryukyu on the east, the outside is terra nullius on the west. The "Kao"(suburb) which Wang Tsip passed means the border between the inside and outside of city-state, in Taoist Feng Shui concept.
 There are the suburb prayings in Taoism. On the Kao (surburb), Taoists generally pray for heaven and earth. Ryukyuans were always affected by Feng Shui came from the Nation Ming. The academic sircles have various associated works with it, such as Kubo Noritada(窪德忠) "Feng Shui in Okinawa"(沖繩の風水), Hirakawa Press(平河出版社), 1990 ;  Machida Munehiro(町田宗博) and Tsuzuki Akiko(都築晶子) "Introduction of Feng Shui Village in Pokmokshan Feng Shui Report"(風水の村序論・北木山風水記について), "Bulletin of the College of Law and Literature, University of Ryukyu, History and Geography" (琉球大學法文學部紀要・史學地理學篇) no.36, pp.99-213, March, 1993, etc..
 The successive envoy's documents sometimes use Feng Shui terms, such as " Tin shan"(鎭山, Chen shan, guarding mountain), appears in " Tiungshan Fact Report"(中山傳信録), written by Zio Pokuang (徐葆光, Xubaoguang), which means the outside main mountain in Feng Shui thinking ; "An Shan"(案山, desk mountain), appears in "The Revised Envoy Document of Ryukyu Voyage"(重編使琉球録), written by Kuak Jolin (郭汝霖, Guorulin), which means a small mountain among two side in Feng Shui thinking.
 The Kao(suburb) which Ryukyuan told Wang Tsip , also should be understood as a concept of Feng Shui in Ryukyu. They considered the whole Ryukyu as one citystate, the suburb was a metropolitan outermost zone, its eastside was in the area, its westside was out of the area. But the later generations understood its east as outside and west as inside. This understanding comes from Sinocentrism, like the English population in USA identify themselves as civilization, former residents as out of civilization.
 Prof. Shaw Hanyi cited the other historical data "The Revised Topography of Fokien Province"(重纂福建通志). There is the paragraph of "Kavalan Subprefecture" (噶瑪蘭廳) in its vol.86 "The Important Points of Every Prefecture"(各縣衝要). It says :

In the ocean behind the central mountain of Taiwan (後山大洋), there is Chogyodai (Diaoyutai) on north side (北有釣魚臺), its "Kang"(港, inlet) is deep, which can anchor 1000 ships. (港深可泊大船千艘)

This sentence looks like can prove Diaoyu Islands belongs to Kavalan subprefecture (now Ngilan prefecture, 宜蘭縣) of Taiwan with its dominion. But Kang just means an inlet, is not man-made wharf. Since Ryukyuans were most familiar with Chogyo Islands, we have to hypothesize that Ryukyuans had provided the information of the deep inlet which can anchor ships. The charactor Ka(可, ke, can) is more important key than it, the sentence only means that the size of the inlet can accommodate ten ships (1000 should be 10). It does not say the ship of the Nation Ch'ing has once be anchored there.
 The same paragraph also recorded about Suetpalan (薛坡蘭, Xuepolan, today Hualien, 花蓮). It was out of Kavalan subprefecture, and then out of Ch'ing territory. We can see two frontispieces of the same topography as the proofs, one is " The Territory Map of Steep Mountains and Channels, Barriers and Old Forts in Taiwan" (臺灣府山險水道關隘古寨疆域圖), and the other is "The Complete Map of Big and Small Waterways of Entrance of Sea in Taiwan" (臺灣海口大小港道總圖). These two maps were painted as far as So Ao(蘇澳), the southern end of Kavalan, not painted as far as Suetpalan. In addition, the vol.4 "The Territory" of this topography did not include the Kavalan subprefecture, had completely leaved out it.
 From these proofs, we can know the paragraph of "The Important Points of Every Prefecture" were not included all in the territory of the Nation Chi'ing.
 The same paragraph of this topography also says :

It is limited by Samtiao on the north(北界三貂), and is along the sea on the east. (東沿大海)

Seeing this, we can know Chogyodai which was out of the north border of Samtiao(三貂) and also out of the east border of the sea, was really not inside of Kavalan territory.
 "The Topography of Kavalan Subprefekture" (噶瑪蘭廳志), published in Hamfong(咸豐) 2nd year (1852), says in the vol.1 "The Territory" :

It reaches to Kualengtsai(過嶺仔) in the East , the sea is prescribed as the border, 15 Li(里, about 600 meter) from the office. Also reaches to Yuenvang K'ang(遠望坑) of Samtiao, 65 Li from the office. Also reaches Maobi Shan(泖鼻山), 95 Li from office in water route.

"The Digest Topography of Kavalan" (噶瑪蘭志略), published in Daokuang (道光) period (1821-1850), has descriptions almost same to these records. Clearly, Chogyodai out of the north and east borders, has never belonged to Taiwan.
 There are two charactors "Fu Zok"(附屬, fushu) in the Treaty of Shimonoseki(Maguan). They must both mean accompanying and belonging. If an island is only acconpanied geographically, does not belong to with the dominion, the one nation has no right to cede it to the other nation of course. It is impossible to include this island in the treaty. Even if Diaoyutai were accompanied to Kavalan geographically, there can be no action brought to the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
 Prof. Shaw Hanyi's starting point is incorrect as above. 70 years later, they suddenly has begined to claim sovereignty over the Chogyo Islands. Who is correct and who is incorrect? Please the public and Mr. Kristof try to make a judgment.
   ***************
 Several weeks after Prof. Shaw Hanyi's opinion has been opened to the public, he added three photos of historical materials at the end of it. The first one "The Record of Missions to Taiwan Waters" (臺海使槎録), has the original phrase on which "The Revised Topography of Fokien Province" has based, but they are almost identical each other.
 The second one "The Topography of Kavalan Subprefekture" records almost same phrase in the end of the paragraph named "Outside of the Border of Lan", belongs to the section "The Records of Affairs", in vol.8. The "Lan" means Kavalan, so it is obvious that Chogyodai was out of the border of Kavalan subprefecture.
 The last one is Chou Mao-gi(周懋琦, Zhou maoqi)'s "Pictorial Treatise of All Taiwan" (全臺圖説), published in Dongdi(同治) 11th year (1872). It has reported many times in September this year, that the President Ma Ying-kiu has found out the almost same phrase in this document. I regret that this phrase belongs to Kirai(奇萊) article, which is also out of Kavalan boundary. Three articles are all out of the territory of the Nation Ch'ing, they are not different from "The Revised Topography of Fokien Province". Prof. Shaw sites these articles, not only unnecessary, but also proves his incorrectness himsenf.

純心

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Shaw Hanyi's article
http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/19/