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造不出復原版 陸歷史課本刪除張衡地動儀
最新更新:2018/10/09 21:26  中央社

因造不出可探測地震的復原版,中國大陸去年已把張衡發明地震儀的內容從歷史課本刪除。圖為石塘天文館的張衡候風地動儀模型。(檔案照片/中新社提供)
張衡地動儀

(中央社台北9日電)西元132年,東漢科學家張衡發明可以檢測地震的「候風地動儀」,是中華民族引以為傲的成就之一。但因為造不出可探測地震的復原版,中國大陸去年已把張衡發明地震儀的內容從歷史課本刪除。

中國大陸對張衡發明地動儀一向非常重視。1951年,考古學家王振鐸根據後漢書記載的短短196個字,結合英國科學家的地震理論,複製出候風地動儀。

這個「復原模型」不但納入歷史課本,成為陸民耳熟能詳的民族成就之一;中國還於1953年特別為其發行郵票,並把「王版地動儀」視為對外文宣利器,曾送到多國展覽。

張衡發明地動儀也一直是台灣歷史教科書必載內容。目前三民版高中一年級歷史課本第一冊記載,張衡「造候風地動儀,能測知地震的方向和所在,是漢代傑出的大科學家,可惜他的製作都已失傳」。

華西都市報報導,2017年秋天投入使用的統編本初中歷史教科書7年級上冊中,張衡和候風地動儀的內容已被刪除。

報導指出,王振鐸雖然根據古籍記載復原出了地動儀的模型,但因為模型內部結構缺乏合理性,所以其龍口中的銅丸無法吐下來,也就是「無法檢測地震」。據說,唐山大地震發生後,這個模型也毫無動靜。

隨著中國對此地動儀模型的宣傳愈廣,外國地震學家的質疑之聲也不斷冒出,甚至因此懷疑張衡以及候風地動儀也是後人杜撰,根本不是真實的歷史。

報導稱,更讓人尷尬的是,1988年,這個地動儀訪問日本,中方解說員在向觀眾講解時,還手持一根木棍捅一下,龍口中的銅丸才會掉到下面蟾蜍的口中。

不僅是外國學者批判,在大陸的地震學界也有不少質疑。中國地震學奠基人傅承義當面指出王振鐸模型的原理錯誤並說:「房樑下吊塊肉都比你那個模型強」。

報導指出,因為王振鐸所造的地動儀模型一直非議不斷,2003年,中國科學院教授馮銳重啟張衡地動儀探索證明之路,他召集的研究小組改採「懸垂擺原理」打造。2009年9月20日,中國科技館新館開幕,新的地動儀模型與觀眾見面。

據報導,觀眾可以親自動手按下按鈕,觀察在不同波型下地動儀的不同反應。只有橫波到來它才吐丸,其他來自縱波的震動,都無法使地動儀有任何反應。這意味著,類似關門、汽車過境、巨大的炮聲等都不會干擾到地動儀。

馮銳雖然復原出更有科學邏輯、更符合史料記載的地動儀模型,但是用他的話來說,這也僅算「我們在當前這個時代對張衡的理解」。也就是說,證明張衡地動儀的探索復原工作還有待努力。(編輯:楊昇儒/翟思嘉)1071009

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1800年前の国宝級の地震探知機が実はレプリカだった、ネット上が騒然―中国
Record china
配信日時:2010年12月2日(木) 10時55分
https://www.recordchina.co.jp/b47480-s0-c30-d0000.html

2010年12月1日、中国の後漢時代の学者、張衡(ちょう・こう、78年〜139年)が作ったとされる国宝級の地震探知機が、実は中国建国後の1950年代に作られたレプリカであったとコラムニストが指摘し、ネット上が騒然となっている。

「後漢書・張衡伝」によると、張衡の地震探知機「地動儀」は132年に誕生。中国人が誇る偉大な発明品として教科書にも記載されている。ところが、その現存する本物として中国博物館に展示されているものが、実は新中国が建国された後の1950年代に史料をもとに複製されたものだとコラムニストの陶短房(タオ・ドゥアンファン)氏が指摘した。しかも、地震を予知するものではなく、地震発生を知らせる機能しかないという。

陶氏がミニブログでこれを指摘すると、多くのネットユーザーから「ずっと誇りに思っていたが今は単なる笑い話だ」「ずっと抱いていた誇りは音を立てて崩れ落ちた」などの声が上がった。このほか、中国4大発明として知られる羅針盤にも同様の疑いがかけられ、ユーザーたちを失望させている。(翻訳・編集/NN)

1日、中国の後漢時代の学者、張衡が作ったとされる国宝級の地震探知機が、実は中国建国後の1950年代に作られたレプリカであったとコラムニストが指摘し、ネット上が騒然となっている。写真は09年10月、清華大学美術学院の教授らが復元した張衡の「地動儀」。

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https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1003050/pictures-of-iconic-seismograph-removed-from-chinese-textbooks
Pictures of Iconic Seismograph Removed From Chinese Textbooks
Experts say there’s scant scientific evidence to support long-accepted model of ancient invention.
Fan Liya
Oct 12, 2018 4-min read

For decades, China’s middle school students were introduced to the world’s first seismograph through an image in their history textbooks: a large, bronze urn with eight dragons perched the same distance apart along the outside, each with a copper ball hanging precariously in its mouth. Whenever there was a tectonic tremor from a particular direction, the corresponding dragon would drop its copper ball into the gaping mouth of a frog perched below it — or so students were taught.

But for a new history textbook being used in public school classrooms across the country this fall, the image of China’s iconic earthquake detector and its accompanying text were removed, according to a Tuesday report by Huaxi City Daily that was later reposted by state-run China News Service.

On Wednesday, the textbook’s publisher, People’s Education Press, explained that the content had not been deleted, but rather moved to a different section. Sixth Tone confirmed from screenshots that the text about the seismograph had indeed been moved to a later section of the book — but the image was missing.

The seismograph is widely believed to have been invented by Zhang Heng, a scholar and polymath who was born in the first century A.D. during the Eastern Han Dynasty. The device is included in a biography of Zhang written a few centuries after the scholar’s death: In fewer than 200 characters, the author describes the seismograph’s appearance and claims it successfully detected an earthquake in northwestern China.

For decades, the popular conception of Zhang’s seismograph came from a 1951 model by the historian Wang Zhenduo (王振鐸), based on the description in the ancient biography. This image was added to China’s textbooks, but in most cases without a caption explaining that it was merely a scholar’s artistic interpretation. It became so commonly accepted that even U.S. President Richard Nixon was shown a seismograph model based on Wang’s during his historic visit to China in 1972.
A seismograph model is displayed at a museum in Beijing, June 10, 2015. Beijing Times/IC

A seismograph model is displayed at a museum in Beijing, June 10, 2015. Beijing Times/IC

However, the 1951 model’s fame and ubiquity have worried seismologists, who aren’t convinced that the design holds scientific weight. Most notably, it failed to detect tremors that could have predicted a devastating earthquake in 1976 that killed hundreds of thousands of civilians and rescue workers.

According to Huaxi City Daily, Feng Rui, a researcher at the China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) under the central China Earthquake Administration, had been trying to persuade People’s Education Press to remove the image from its textbook. Feng could not be reached on Friday, but his colleague at CENC, Sun Shihong, told Sixth Tone that Feng had led a national project to build a functioning model of the seismograph described by the ancient scholar, Zhang. “He hopes the restored seismograph will be able to detect earthquakes, but that goal hasn’t been achieved yet,” Sun explained.

Jiang Xiaoyuan (江曉原), a history of science professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong (交通) University, believes people should be cautious before lauding ancient inventions with scant scientific credibility. “There was no information about the inner structure of the seismograph in the ancient texts, which only claimed it could detect earthquakes,” Jiang said in an interview with online news platform Pear Video.

As another example, Jiang cited a magnetic compass believed to be invented in China during the Warring States period from 475 to 221 B.C. As in the case of Zhang’s seismograph, a physical model was never recovered; however, the historian Wang created a well-known model shaped like a spoon laid over a lodestone. Jiang also questions the authenticity of this model — which was featured during the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics as one of China’s “four great inventions.”

“I’d suggest not mentioning these two items in history textbooks,” Jiang said, referring to the spoon compass and the urn seismograph.

Not all netizens seem to share Jiang’s passion for scientific accuracy though. “I disagree. The items are just symbols of Chinese culture — it doesn’t matter whether they’re scientific or not,” commented one user under the video interview. Even Sun, the CENC researcher, believes Zhang’s invention should remain in school textbooks. “As long as the story serves an educational purpose, there’s no need for such abrupt action,” he said.

The new history textbook presents Zhang as the inventor of the world’s first seismograph, and notes that any original models were destroyed. Rather than include an image of Wang’s artistic interpretation, the text now encourages students to search online and offline for other models that have been designed based on the information in their books.

“Such an assignment aims to enhance students’ knowledge of Zhang Heng and the seismograph, and of the wisdom of ancient Chinese people,” People’s Education Press said in its statement on Wednesday. “In this way, national pride will be elevated.”

Editor: David Paulk.

(Header image: Children touch a model of a seismograph at a museum in Yantai, Shandong province, May 11, 2016. Sun Wentan/IC)



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