(translation)   The Arbitration Tribunal Did Not Refute the Assertion of Latitude Measurement of Gen (Mdr. Yuan *) Empire but Condemn “The Taiwan Authorities of China” 
by ISHIWI, Nozomu
Associate Professor of Nagasaki Junshin Catholic University,
& Research Specialist (concurrent) of Investigation Business Unit consigned by Office of Policy Planning Coordination on Territory and Sovereignty

  * The original Kanji terms are translated according to the pronunciations of Japanese kanji, and herein accompanied with pronunciations in corresponding Mandarin.

The original Chinese version, in the internet site of Storm Media Group, see link:
Time: 2016-7-23   06:40 a. m.
Japanese translation:  http://senkaku.blog.jp/2016091565883977.html

  Upon the award of South China Sea Arbitration as dated July 12th, Taiwan was concerned with how Itu Aba Island (Mdr. Taiping Island) would be defined – an island or a reef, while the press abroad gave more attention to whether or not the historic rights of the People’s Republic of China were denied.  At the first glance of the news title, I was delighted as I thought there was someone brilliant in the court having good eyesight and daring to unmask the country’s false history. A few hours later, a Japanese professor in the UK sent me the website of the original verdict, and I myself also sourced the shortened version in Mandarin from Liberty Times (Taiwan).

  After reading them roughly, my delight vanished in despair. The “nine-dash line” was denied in the verdict many times, however, the words were as simple as “the historic rights are contradictory with international laws”, or “the nine-dash line has no legal effect”. None of them directly gave a head-on blow on the nine-dash line. The tribunal is too cautious, as I see. They winced in front of the struggle for the truth of history. They missed the best opportunity to shock the “fake antique shop”. Owing to the tribunal’s evasion, the People's Republic of China will tell more lies more unscrupulously.  

  China Sea Directory, published by British Navy in the 19th century, was frequently cited in the verdict, powerfully denying the false history. However, nearly all the Kanbun* documents and materials related to the nine-dash line were ignored, which are only indirectly mentioned once in Note 840 on Page 309 of the original English version.
  Cited from an English declaration of the Chinese Embassy in Manila.
  The Chinese Embassy claimed that Chinese astronomical surveys and fishery in Scarborough Shoal has dated back to Gen (Mdr. Yuan) Empire and continuously developed till now, which was contradicted by the verdict on Page 311 as "The Tribunal’s conclusions with respect to  traditional fishing are thus independent of the question of sovereignty."
  It is absolutely right that fishery is irrelevant to sovereignty, but the fraud of latitude measurement of Gen Empire was totally unexposed. Is that to say they only discuss those English materials that are legible and totally avoid Kanbun* materials because of their ignorance of Kanbun? This equals a total denial of the Kanji culture, not just a denial of the Peoples Rupublic's claim.
   * Kanbun: Mdr. Hanwen, or literal Chinese, similar to Latin, or literal Italian, in Europe.

  The history materials of astronomical surveys refer to Shikai Sokken (Mdr. Si-hai-ce-yan, Surveying Shores on Four Directions), Volume 3 of Shosho-tsuko (Mdr. Shang-shu-tong-kao) by Kou Chinsei (Mdr. Huang Zhencheng) of Gen Empire, which was later included in Tenmonshi (Mdr. Tienwenzhi, Astronomy Journal) of Genshi (Mdr. Yuan-shi, or Official History of Gen Empire). Gen Empire highly valued Islamic science. Kaku Shukei (Mdr. Guo Shoujing) the renowned astronomer was delegated by Kublai to measure latitude from south to north. He obtained a latitude 15° north in "South Sea" (see the photocopy). 15° north is exactly the latitude of Scarborough Shoal, and thereby the People's Republic of China asserted that the “South Sea” therein refers to Scarborough Shoal. The fact is that Kaku Shukei only measured the latitude without the longitude. Middle Vietnam is also on the same latitude. How dare the People's Republic to say that place (15° north) is Scarborough Shoal on the coastline of Philippines! This fallacy has been challenged by many experts. I have something new here to add.
Ancient Observatory built in Pekin under the guidance of missionary. extracted from Illustrations of China and its people, J. Thomson, published by "China Through Western Eyes", 1873
Illustrations of China and its people1873北京古觀象臺

  Leave aside the accuracy of Kaku Shukei’s measurement, let’s first align the clue of this story. 360-degree Circumference was invented by ancient Babylonians, and flowed into Tou (Mdr. Tang) Empire via India. Many ancient astronomical books mentioned that a Tou monk called Ichigyou (Mdr. Yixing) was skillful in Indian calendar and measured latitude all under heaven. He plotted the first Sanga Nanboku Ryoukai Zu (Mdr. Shanhe Nanbei Liangjie Tu, Map of Two Borders, Mountains and Rivers, South and North). That is the first national map. With his intention of surpassing Monk Ichigyou, Kaku Shukei (Mdr. Guo Shoujing) re-measured the country to manifest the vastness and civilization prosperity of Gen Empire.

  The Tou Monk Ichigyou once sent someone to Rin-yu (Mdr. Lin-yi, today’s Vietnam) to obtain a latitude 17° north, a well-known figure representing the extreme south. By Gen Empire, the figure was still inscribed on Gyogi (Mdr. Yang-yi), a national astronomical instrument, noted as “Seventeen, extremely shallow, Rin-yu territory”. The extremely shallow means low latitude. Later in Tenmonshi of Genshi, it was rewritten as “Fifteen, extremely shallow, Rin-yu territory”.

  Why change seventeen to fifteen? Obviously the 15° latitude of Rin-yu by Kaku Shukei was collected into Genshi, inheriting Ichigyou’s achievement. The compilation of Genshi was conducted by Souren (Mdr. Songlian) and other celebrities of that time, as invited by Emperor Koubu (Mdr. Hongwu) of Min (Mdr. Ming) Empire, and is finished soon after the founding of Min Empire. It almost equals a contemporary record of Gen Empire. For this we can say Souren among others also held that the 15° measured by Kaku Shukei was in Rin-yu, the same as Ichigyou, not in Scarborough Shoal. Crossing the ocean to Scarborough Shoal would have been an unprecedentedly magnificent feat far more significant than Ichigyou’s measurement. Was there any possibility that the editors of Genshi would mistake Scarborough Shoal for Rin-yu?

  Genshi is the official works of Min Empire. Suppose it intended to deny the glorious achievement of Gen Empire, there would be two common methods. One was to completely erase the fact of Kaku Shukei’s measurement by skimming it over or even not saying a single word about it. The other one was to reproach Kaku Shukei for defecting abroad and spreading rumors. The editors of Genshi chose neither of these two skilfull methods, but stealthily substituted Rin-yu for Scarborough Shoal, which would be a clumsy method failing to blot out Kaku’s effort. Thus the above assumption is really a fallacy, don’t you think so? Thus the above assumption is really a fallacy. The fact is the point of measurement is located in Rin-yu, not in Scarborough Shoal. China’s lies betray themselves. What a pity that the marine tribunal failed to unmask them, indulging the country to dismiss the award and go on claiming their two-thousand year jurisdiction over South China Sea.  
  (two-thousand year jurisdiction : http://senkaku.blog.jp/2016032257037201.html )

Tenmonshi (Astronomy Journal) of Genshi (Official History of Gen Empire),
 Kouki (Mdr. Kangxi) Period version, owned by Keio University


  Undeniably, Kaku Shukei is an excellent scientist, but the 360-degree Circumference is an import. We needn’t say Kaku Shukei as highly as People's Republic, and the accuracy of his measurement is also arguable. On the first six measurement points, the angle for Polaris’ rise (i.e. North latitude) are 15°, 25°, 35°, 45°, 55° and 65° (See the photocopy). That is to say, Kaku knows the latitude before deciding the measurement points. Thus the accuracy of the angle is questionable. The most obvious is that 25° was described as “no shadow at summer solstice”. At Summer solstice, places without sundial’s shadows are all above the Tropic of Cancer, i.e. 23.5° north. How can it be 25°? Obviously, the figure was rounded and correspondingly, the measurement was not so accurate. Similarly, there should be some deviations from the 15° measurement in "South Sea". It should be within the range from 14° to 16°, so it cannot be determined as the 15° of Scarborough Shoal.

  In view of the inaccuracy, we have to review the following size of the sundial shadow. Gakudai (Mdr. Yuetai) at 35° north is also named Taigakudai (Mdr. Taiyuetai), where the shadow of the sundial at summer solstice is 1.48 shaku (Mdr. chi, Kanji units of measurement, 1 shaku ≈ 30cm). The ancient shadow of the sundial is 8 shaku. Converted by trigonometry, 1.48 shaku is equivalent to a latitude slightly less than 34°.

  Taigakudai is the traditional site for erecting a sundial. The Great Cebtral Kingdom ideological believed that it is the center of the earth, so it is more important than any other sundial point and the measurement at Taigakudai should be much more careful. Where is it? Tenmonshi (Astronomy Journal) of Shin-Toujo (Mdr. Xin-tang-shu, Official History of Tou Empire) writes, “From Katsu (Mdr. Hua) county, walk 199 Ri (Mdr. Li, about 500 meter) southward to Taigakudai, furhter 168 Ri southward to Fukou (Mdr. Fugou) county, another 160 Ri southward to Jousai (Mdr. Shangcai) county. Taigakudai is in the middle of Katsu county and Fukou county, close to Kaihou (Mdr. Kaifeng) Prefecture.

  With reference to modern data, Kaihou is 34°45′ north, while Fukou is slightly more than 34° north. Via the sundial, Kaku measured slightly less than 34° north for Taigakudai, which is south of Fukou. Compared with Kaihou’s latitude, there is at least a deviation of 0.5°. Thus Kaku’s measurement of the sundial shadow at summer solstice is not so accurate. Similarly, the 15-degree of "South Sea" may be between 14.5° and 15.5°. This fuzzy figure is utilized and falsely interpreted into the latitude of Scarborough Shoal, by which China robbed Philippines.


  One more thing that has to be mentioned is that, according to descriptions in the Genshi text of 54 koku (Mdr. ke, a short period of time) at daylight and 46 koku at night under the size of the sundial shadow, one whole day is divided into 100 koku, the daytime is longer than the nighttime in the north, and the daytime is equal with the nighttime in the south. Peoples Republic’s experts went so far as to conclude thereby that the longitude of the "South Sea" measurement is the same as that of Scarborough Shoal. It is as easy as an exercise for pupils. What has longitude to do with the length of daytime / nighttime? The tribunal seemed indifferent. I am really in a situation between tears and laughter. Moreover, the longitude measurement became precise in the 18th century Europe, so if the longitude of Scarborough Shoal had been measured by Gen Empire, the whole history of science would be rewritten.

  I’m more and more indulged in disclosing the above historic tricks. However, Taiwanese don’t care. They only concern that Itu Aba Island has been degraded to a reef. In a few days of brainstorming, Legislator Kuan Bi-ling pointed out the crux on July 13th (The day after the verdict day). She said none of the claimers for Spratly (Mdr. Nansha) Islands declared the rights for exclusive economic zones; Taiwan didn’t, either. Since Itu Aba Island had been degraded, Taiwan must continue to keep silent and the present status would not change. The tribunal also set limits on rights of other countries, and the benefits outweigh the disadvantages  for Taiwanese. Actually, the most painful loss to Taiwan is being defined as “the Taiwan Authorities of China”.

(Legislator Kuan Bi-ling : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cWQkoa2FgGE )

  Why does such a horrifying title appear in the verdict? I reckon the Tribunal is intentionally warning Taiwan not to serve as the cat’s paw of China. The tribunal focussed on the peace of South China Sea, right? The only peacebreaking power at present is the Peoples Republic of China. If Taiwan followed its step, Taiwan would become another destructive factor, which is intolerable to the tribunal. To give Taiwan a lesson, the tribunal called them “the Taiwan Authorities of China”, the same as calling Taiwan a jackal.

  As the tribunal wants to keep peace, this award is doomed. According to the verdict, no islands or reefs have the right to own exclusive economic zones. In other words, no one can occupy South China Sea forcibly. It is the fairest judgment. If only Itu Aba Island and a plurality of large islands were judged as island, and all the others as reefs, the public opinion in Taiwan would naturally require the government to announce exclusive economic zones. Upon announcement, only these islands aforesaid can seize the vast sea area, leaving no space for other islands. Can this comfort other countries? No, it certainly will bring about a disastrous consequence resulting in more fierce conflicts, even armed conflicts between Taiwan and Philippines or Vietnam. Then the area will become the second or third power magazine in the world, just as Balkan in East Europe. The tribunal wouldn’t like to see this verdict become a historic blasting fuse. In a word, this verdict is the only and doomed solution to South China Sea problem.
  Nevertheless, many deserted islands will be determined as reefs by this criterion. For example, Okino-torishima, as the sea area around it has no overlapping border with neighbor countries, can it be continuously determined as an island? Senkaku (or Chogyo, Mdr. Diaoyu) Islands is another example, will it be determined as a reef? A series of problems will come out. The tribunal has the awareness of such troubles; however, in consideration of the peace of South China Sea, all Spratly (Mdr. Nansha) Islands have to be determined as reefs. This move seemed risky, but there’s no other choice but seeking for desperate measure : self-trouble-shooting. Considering difficulties and determination of the tribunal, we should understand and respect the award. I forecast this award will be of historic significance and fame over time.