1.China ignores all documents regarding its border, which was actually far west of the Senkaku islands.
A large number of historical documents indicate that the border of the Min (Mdr. Ming) Empire and the Shin (Mdr. Qing, Ch'ing) Empire was far west of the Senkaku islands. The most important historical document to verify this fact is “Komin Jitsuroku” (Mdr. Huangming Shilu), an official daily record of the Ming Court, written in 1617. It describes that a Japanese envoy was told by the head of the Chinese coast guard that “outside of the six islands located alongside the coast of Fukken is a big ocean, in which
any nation can sail without restraint”. One of these six islands named Tuoyu was known as a western gateway which provided a sea route for the Senkaku islands. This sea route lay outside of the border of the Min Empire and the Shin Empire.
China ignores inconvenient documents and insists obstinately that its border is the east part of the Senkaku islands, where the boundary of Ryukyu used to exist.
2.Ryukyuans continuously navigated Chinese ships to Ryukyu through the sea of Senkakus.
Between Ryukyu and China, people traveled one another for a long period of time. The earliest sailing record can be found in “Ryukyu Mission Chronicle” (Shi ryukyu roku, Mdr.ShiLiuqiu lu), a journal of an envoy to Ryukyu, written by Chin kan (Mdr. Chenkan) in 1534. According to Chin kan, the time when he had difficulty in shipping out from Fukushu (Fuzhou, Foochow), the king of Ryukyu sent government officials to navigate his ship to Ryukyu. He appreciated this offer with a huge amount of joy (the term
“三喜Sanki”, meaning delighted three times, is used to express how happy he felt ), then he could reach the Ryukyu through the sea of the Senkakus escorted by Ryukyuans.
The historical documents thereafter also show that Ryukyans took charge of guiding Chinese sailing ships through the sea of the Senkakus, and the eastward of Taiwan Strait. However, there is no record of piloting ships in the same areas by Chinese people. It means that the sea area of the Senkaku islands was practically under the Ryukyuan’s control. China emphasizes that its ships passed the Senkaku area during the Min (Mdr.Ming) Empire period, disregarding the Ryukyuan navigators’ support.
3.The historical literature written in 1403, which China claims, was actually written after 1573.
China insists that the marine navigation manual called “Sailing Downwind” (Junpu-soso, Mdr. Shunfeng xiangsong), written in 1403, is the earliest document describes about Senkaku islands. It also contains
descriptions of the Portuguese lived in Nagasaki bay area, and the Spanish fortress build in Manila. In fact, the Portuguese start to live in Nagasaki and opened its port in 1570, and it was in 1573 when the Manila fortress was built. Thus, “Sailing Downwind” was certainly written after 1573, not in 1403. Therefore, we could conclude that the oldest document about Senkaku islands is the “Ryukyu Mission Chronicle” (Shi ryukyu roku, Mdr.ShiLiuqiulu), a journal of an envoy to Ryukyu, written by Chin kan in 1534. “Sailing Downwind” also illustrates a northern straight-line sea route to the Senkaku islands from the coast of Fukken. Normally, people took a southern route near the northernmost point of the Taiwan Island to the Senkaku islands. Many historical documents, including “Sailing Downwind” itself, mention that the northern route was very difficult to get through, so that the only highly experienced Ryukyuans could maneuver ships. Paying careful respect to Ryukyuan navigators, “Sailing Downwind” was supposedly written from a Ryukyuans’ perspective. There is no evidence that the Min (Mdr. Ming) Empire discovered the Senkaku islands as China claims. On the contrary, it can be said that the Ryukyuans always took a leading role in the Senkaku sea area with their profound knowledge of sea routes and
advanced skills of handling ships.
4.Chogyo-sho(釣魚嶼now Uotsuri Island; Mdr. Diaoyu-tai) is named by Ryukyuan using classical style of Kanji, not by Chinese. (釣魚Chogyo “fishing” 嶼sho “island”)
The oldest record of the Chogyo-sho (now Uotsuri Island; Mdr. Diaoyu-tai), one of the Senkaku islands, appears in “Ryukyu Mission Chronicle” (Shi ryukyu roku, Mdr.ShiLiuqiu lu), a Journal of an envoy to
Ryukyu, written by Chin kan (Mdr. Chenkan) in 1534. The journal describes that the Chinese reached the Chogyo-sho navigated by the Ryukyuans. Thus, it is natural to presume that the island name had been already given by Ryukyuan. However, China insists that the Chinese named this island, only because a classical literary style of Kanji (漢字Chinese characters) is used for its name. A classical literary style of Kanji called Kanbun(漢文Mdr. Hanwen) is widely used in east of Asia to communicate each other. Chogyo(釣魚Mdr.Daioyu), meaning fishing, is a name of the Kanbun style, not of recent Chinese. Many places were named using Kanbun, for example, Tokyo (Mdr. Dongjing), Hokkaido (Mdr. Beihaidao) and so on. Moreover, a word "Sho嶼 (Mdr. Yu, old style Mdr. Su)”, meaning an island, attached to the name of the islands can be often found in the Japanese classical literature.
Kanbun is similar to Latin. Latin is the common language of a civilization, so as Kanbun.
5.Chogyo-dai in the local records of Taiwan is not the one in Senkakus
The island named Chogyo-dai (釣魚臺now Uotsuri Island; Mdr. Diaoyu-tai), meaning a platform of fishing, can be also seen in the local record of Taiwan and subsequent ones, the first appearance was the year of 1722. Supposedly, Taiwan’s Chogyo-dai was the island only had the same name as the one in Senkakus.
The days of sail, people made their trip to Ryukyu in summer and returned to Fukken (Mdr.Fokkien, Fujian) in winter by using the power of seasonal winds. Once they were on their way to Ryukyu in summer, it is impossible to change their direction back to Fukken during the summertime. Stopping over
in Chogyo-dai of Senkakus meant that they were automatically heading to Ryukyu, as every journal of old time voyages recorded. On the other hand, there is no description of the Ryukyu Islands or the other islands of Senkakus in the local records of Taiwan.
Moreover, other four historical documents explain that Taiwan’s Chogyo-dai is located on the west side of three north islets of Taiwan. Therefore, Taiwan’s Chogyo-dai is not the same Chogyo-dai the one in the Senkaku islands.
6.The east part of the Senkaku islands is the internal and the external border of the Ryukyu.
"Shiryukyu-zoroku” (Shiliuqiu-zalu in recent Chinese), miscellaneous records of an envoy to Ryukyu written by Oshu (Wangji in recent Chinese)in 1683, indicates that a Ryukyuan told him there was a boundary of the Ryukyu on the east side of Senkakus. The Ryukyuan uses the term “Chu-gai no kai中
外之界” ,meaning the internal (中Chu)and the external (gai外) border (kai界), for its boundary. Recently, China insists “Chu中” means China and “gai外” means foreign countries. However, the envoy Oshu described on his own work "Kankai-shu”(Mdr. Guanhai-ji), a sea observation anthology, that Fukken’s territory ended by the Tosa (Dongsha in recent Chinese) Islands, which is called Matsu Islands (Baso in Japanese, Mazu in recent Chinese) nowadays, in Taiwan Strait. If the territory of the Fukken ended there, the Shin (Qing, Ch'ing) Empires’ territory also ended there.
The boundary on the east part of the Senkakus that the Ryukyuan explained to the envoy Oshu is not related to China at all. “Chu-gai no kai中外之界” (the internal and the external border) is about the internal border of Ryukyu and the external border of Ryukyu.
*Mdr.: Mandarin Chinese